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  • Biological research

    Cell biology is one of the most intensely researched areas of science
    with potentially far reaching benefits that could save and improve
    countless lives.

  • Darwin's Biological specimens

    Specimens of fish collected by Charles Darwin during his voyage
    on HMS Beagle during which he went to the Galapagos.
    He published his work about evolution, "The Origin of Species" in 1859

  • Adelie penguins

    Life extends to all parts of the planet no matter how unforgiving they seem. These penguins are sitting out an Antarctic blizzard on the frozen sea. Their body clocks have told them it is time to head towards the nesting grounds where they themselves were hatched from eggs.

  • Butterfly Fish

    On a Red Sea coral reef one of the worlds most diverse and complicated ecosystems. Each of the plants and animals that live there have their own particular niche to avoid competition with other species.

  • Liverwort

    A small primitive plant of damp places as seen through
    a light microscope showing individual cells many with
    visible chloroplasts where photosynthesis occurs
    - Riccardia multifida


Biology for Students - School science, biology for 11 to 16's


Biological topics for school students

Biology is the study of life. There are generally reckoned to be five fundamental sub-divisions of biology:


Cell biology, cytology, cells are the basic units that living organisms are made of. To make a cell you need a cell, an average human is made of around 6 trillion cells which is a stupidly large number. Each of those cells arose from an original cell that split in two and they are all traced back to your first unique cell formed when the sperm and egg cells that make you up first met. Cell biology is involved in the study of how these cells divide and know what to do, what to become and how to behave.

Genetics, the study of genes, the units of heredity and inheritance. Many organisms are made of a blend of two parents, many others are clones of their single parent, many others can do both of these things at different times and some can do them at the same time. One viewpoint is that genes make organisms as a means of making new genes.

Evolutionary biology, how new species arise and traits are inherited. Evolution in its purest sense is happening in all species all the time. Visible evolution however is a very slow process even when it moves very quickly. It happens at different speeds at different times in different organisms. The Ginkgo tree Ginkgo biloba is recognizably the same now as it is in 270 million year old fossils, while a fish, the Coelocanth is remarkably similar to fossil specimens over 400 million years old. Polar bears on the other hand are thought to be the most recently evolved large animal and no older than 100,000 years, a very long time, but a twinkling of the eye when compared to the age of the earth.

Homeostasis, maintaining a constant internal environment within an organism to ensure bodily functions remain stable and constant. This ability that happens in all organisms to a greater or lesser extent is what enables them to function despite what may be enormous changes in the environment or availability of water and food. It is how emperor penguins can breed in Antarctica despite winter temperatures of -50°C and blizzard conditions, how camels can survive temperatures of +49°C and how Rupell’s vultures can fly above 10,000m where there is less than a quarter of the air and oxygen density than at sea level.

The transformation of energy as it is consumed by and flows through organisms. The available energy in an environment determines how many many organisms can live there and in what density. How the energy passes from one organism to another by feeding, reproduction and death determines the communities and pattern of animals and plants.


Biology studies the most incredible divide there is, the divide between being alive or not alive and then all the consequences that stem from this.

In practical everyday terms, it includes disciplines that affect us everyday in the most fundamental ways possible. Medicine to keep us alive and well, ad agriculture to feed us and in its wider influences to stabilise our societies and ways of life.

At the other end of the immediate effect spectrum we have some very fundamental questions that are answered or at least addressed by biology and biologists. Where did we come from? "we" meaning life itself and mankind in particular, how did we get here? Why did we get here? How do we function? How is it that we have a sense of self awareness and unique processing power based in our brains, an organ that is the size of a small to medium melon made of about 75% water (not quite as wet as a melon then) that not even the biggest and most complex super computer can match?

Biology also describes the great variety of the living world, our planet has about 1.2 million currently named and described species of organism, there are thought to be around 9 million in total, so most have not yet been identified as being unique or even discovered at all. This description of the vast diversity of life draws connections between organisms alive today and those that are long dead. Evolution is the great underlying and unifying concept of biology, it is no coincidence that you are more similar to an orang utan than a dolphin or that in many ways, you are really quite similar to a mushroom. It is a four billion year old story where we keep finding expected and unexpected pages, though at no time have ever found a page that doesn't fit the rest of the story.

The study of biology may start you on a life-long career, it may be with you as an associated interest with plants or animals, it will at the very least help you to understand the world and its processes as they affect you and others that you know on your path through life.

These pages will explore these topics at a level suitable for school and homework tasks and to help you understand what you have covered in lessons or homeschooling.



Biology is the study of life.
Of how living things came about, of their variety, of how they build themselves, reproduce and pass on traits to the next generation and how they maintain and power themselves throughout changing conditions.

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Chemistry is the study of matter.
The way that matter and energy interact with each other. Along with Physics it is a branch of physical science. How different substances interact with one another, and make new materials, their properties and uses.

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Physics is the study of energy and matter.
The way that matter interacts and is influenced by energy. A branch of physical science along with Chemistry. It studies the smallest sub atomic particles right up to stars and galaxies in an attempt to explain how the universe behaves.

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This section is for teachers of science.
This site is not intended specifically to deliver any particular course in science, though it will hopefully cover most or all of the school science you will teach. This section is particularly aimed at those who are new or inexperienced.

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